Terpene Health Benefits – Vanilla Mint CBD Tincture

Terpenes are aroma molecules produced by most plants and the largest single class of compounds found in essential oils. Terpenes often have a strong odor and may protect the plants that produce them by deterring herbivores or by attracting predators.

 

The primary terpenes in Mint are L-Limonene, Alpha Pinene, Beta Pinene and Cineol – the primary terpene in Vanilla is Vanillin.

 

There have been many studies that detail the health benefits we receive from plant terpenes. Many have anti-cancer properties, immune system boosting properties, anti-inflammation properties, memory improvement and much, much more!

 

Here are a few studies on the benefits of just the terpenes found in Luvitol Vanilla Mint Tincture:

 

Anti-Cancer

Limonene has antioxidant properties, allowing it to counteract the effects of free radicals, which damage DNA and lead to cancer [source 1, source 2].

In an animal study, orange oil with limonene reduced the growth of liver tumors, while it increased the growth of, and new connections between, normal cells [source].

Moreover, lemon extract prevented pancreatic and intestinal damage in mice caused by the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) [source].

Alpha-pinene tested high in inhibitory activity against hepatoma carcinoma cells. This means that alpha-pinene can potentially stop tumor growth and be an effective supplement for chemotherapy treatments. Another study in animal models showed that mice who were exposed to an environment enriched with alpha-pinene reduced their melanoma growth.

A 2002 paper published within Oncology Reports details an investigation in which cineol was administered to human leukemia cell lines. The researchers found, that cineol suppressed the growth of the leukemia cell lines due to inducing apoptosis.

A number of preliminary studies published in the 1990s indicate that D-limonene may protect against cancer. In a research review published in Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis in 1994, for instance, researchers analyzed the available research on D-limonene and determined that it may help inhibit the growth of tumors and possibly protect against breast cancer.

More recent research on D-limonene and cancer includes a 2012 study from Human & Experimental Toxicology, in which tests on mice revealed that D-limonene may help protect against skin cancer in part by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress.

In addition, a 2012 study published in Life Sciences suggests that D-limonene may help fight colon cancer. In tests on human cells, the study’s authors found that D-limonene may protect against colon cancer by inducing apoptosis (a type of programmed cell death essential for stopping the proliferation of cancer cells). Given the lack of human clinical trials testing the anti-cancer effects of D-limonene, it’s too soon to recommend D-limonene as a treatment of any type of cancer.

As a Biological Antimutagenic vanillin has been studied and found to reduce the rate that body cells mutate.  One study showed that the beneficial properties within vanillin affected 64 genes that caused stress and oxidative damage, DNA damage, irregular cell proliferation and apoptosis a form of cell death [source].

Researchers have found that vanillin is a natural inhibitor of angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a tool used by cancers to hijack the bodies formation of blood cells to spread cancer aggressively. These newly created blood cells feed the cancerous growths with nutrients and oxygen for growth. Vanillin works against this process in ways that science has only recently begun to understand. It all comes down to nitric oxide, a molecule that is very important to the growth of tumors because it supplies the oxygen. Vanillin stops the production of nitric oxide within the tumor essentially strangling it.

A few studies looked at the anti-cancer effects of a compound found in α-pinene. All three studies found that α-pinene blocked human liver cancer cell rapid growth [1, 2, 3] and also blocks cancer cell growth by affecting gene regulation [source].

Caryophuyllene can enhance the effects of some anti-cancer drugs, such as paclitaxel and doxorubicin. (source 1, source 2, source 3, source 4)

 

Studies show B-caryophyllene holds promise in cancer treatment plans. Resarch shows that caryophyllene selectively binds to the CB2 receptor resulting in a biological response.

Caryophyllene possesses a wide range of biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous and local anesthetic actions. (source)

Reduces Seizues and Epilepsy

Caryophyllene has been shown to reduce seizures in animal models of epilepsy. (source)

 

May Boost the Immune System

Healthy mice treated with limonene produced significantly more antibodies when exposed to foreign antigens and stimulated immune cells in the pancreas and intestines [source].

In mice with lymphoma, limonene improved survival, increased their ability to fight bacterial infections, and reduced hypersensitivity to foreign compounds, which can ultimately reduce allergic reactions [source].

Limonene increased the activity of macrophages (white blood cells that engulf foreign particles) in the lungs of rats in a dose-dependent manner [source].

Mice that inhaled limonene showed significantly reduced anxiety levels. Limonene is also highly volatile, which means that it easily evaporates into a gas, making it ideal for inhaled aromatherapy [source].

An animal study published in a 2011 issue of the “European Journal of Pharmacology” found that as a result of the vanillin content, vanilla extract had powerful liver-protective abilities, as well as anti-inflammatory abilities.

 

Can Help Relieve Pain

In rats, limonene reduced pain (induced by physical stresses) and sensitivity to pain [source].

Limonene reduced widespread pain in the bones and muscles of mice, likely by acting on nerves [source].

Inhaling limonene reduced pain severity in 63 women (out of 126 women in labor with similar levels of pain) [source].

Limonene as an aromatherapy agent reduced nausea, vomiting, and pain during the first stage of labor in a study (DB-RCT) of 100 pregnant women [source].

 

Relieves Heartburn

In a study of 19 people taking heartburn medications, 17 had no heartburn symptoms after taking only limonene daily for two weeks [source].

Another study (DB-RCT) of 13 participants found that, after two weeks, limonene relieved heartburn symptoms in all but one of the patients [source].

 

Improves Heart Health

Caryophyllene reduce stress to the heart (source) and may also suppress the development of atherosclerosis. (source)

 

Reduce Inflammation

In 2011, the British Journal of Pharmacology published a study conducted by Ethan Russo regarding the medical efficacy of alpha-pinene. It found the terpene to be a powerful anti-inflammatory agent capable of delivering relief to patients with cancer, multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, and several other conditions that feature a root cause of inflammation.

The study also pointed out the role of the entourage effect, noting how the efficacy of alpha-pinene is modified by other terpenes and cannabinoids. Concluded the study: “[Terpenes] display unique therapeutic effects that may contribute meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis-based medicinal extracts. [Terpenes] could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, [and] fungal and bacterial infection.”

A study in 2012 showed that alpha-pinene was a potent anti-inflammatory agent against Acute Pancreatitis, an inflammatory disease with an unknown cause.

A study in 2011 showed that alpha-pinene, along with all the different cannabinoids and terpenes found in cannabis, interact synergistically and amplify anti-inflammatory activity. These results show that alpha-pinene is helpful in inflammation management for diseases such as arthritis, Crohn’s, and multiple sclerosis.

A 2012 paper published within the Journal of Asthma showed that cineole can result in improvement in lung function and health, and can reduce dyspnea in asthma patients.

A 2002 study published in the journal Inhalation Toxicology found alpha-pinene to be a powerful bronchodilator. This terpene helps asthma patients and others with respiratory conditions by opening the airways of their upper respiratory system.

Caryophyllene Can decrease brain damage after stroke by reducing swelling, neuronal damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain. (source 2) (source 2) (source 3)

Caryophyllene can also help a leaky blood-brain barrier after stroke. (source)

By improving blood flow to the brain, caryophyllene can help with Vascular Dementia (VD). (source)

By increasing Treg anti-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-10), caryophyllene may help reduce the progression and symptoms of MS, such as neuropathy and pain. (source)\

By activation of CB2 receptors, Caryophuyllene  may protect the kidneys from inflammation and oxidative stress. (source)

By activation of ACC1, AMPK, CB2 and PPAR-gamma, caryophuyllene may help with:

    • General Liver Inflammation: (source)
    • Liver Scarring due to alcohol (source)
    • Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NALFD) (source)
    • Reducing High Levels of Triglycerides (Hypertriglyceridemia) (source 1, source 2)

    Caryophuyllene combines well with Milk Thistle to improve liver function. (source)

 

 

May Relieve Pain

 

Caryophyllene may be applied topically and locally to areas of pain. (source)

Caryophuyllene can help reduce muscle spasms and muscle pain. (source 1 source 2, source 3)

Caryophyllene may also potentiate the analgesic action of morphine. (source)

Caryophuyllene may increase testosterone and estrogen levels in those with chronic pain. (source)

 

 

May Reduce Inflammation in the Gut

Limonene protected the gut lining and was a more effective anti-inflammatory agent than ibuprofen in rats with inflammation in the colon [source].

In a cell-based study, limonene reduced reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines in human leukemia cells [source].

In rats with intestinal inflammation, limonene slowed down inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and prevented further damage to the lining of the large intestine [source].

Moreover, a study of 5 healthy adults showed that limonene increases bowel movements, which can promote regularity in people who struggle with regular bowel habits [source].

A January 2015 study entitled “Gastroprotective Effect of Alpha-pinene and its Correlation with Antiulcerogenic Activity of Essential Oils” and published in the journal Pharmacognosy Magazine concluded that pinene is an excellent treatment therapy for sufferers of various types of ulcers and other digestive conditions. “Our data showed that α-pinene exhibited significant antiulcerogenic activity and a great correlation between concentration of α-pinene and gastroprotective effect,” reported the study’s researchers.

Caryophuyllene may help with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). (source 1) (source 2)

For example, caryophuyllene can reduce inflammation in the colon by activating CB2 and PPAR-gamma receptors. (source 1) (source 2)

 

Anti-microbial

A study in 2011 showed that alpha-pinene, along with all the different cannabinoids and terpenes found in cannabis, interact synergistically and amplify anti-inflammatory activity. These results show that alpha-pinene is helpful in inflammation management for diseases such as arthritis, Crohn’s, and multiple sclerosis.

Alpha-pinene has proved to be an effective antimicrobial agent against bacterial and fungal cells. In 2011, alpha-pinene was tested as a potent treatment against a bronchitis virus that was previously hard to treat since antibiotics don’t work on viruses.

Although one study claims that alpha-pinene exposure can cause upper respiratory irritation, the benefits far outweigh mild negative symptoms. In a 2011 study, alpha-pinene showed promise as a bronchodilator by opening up the upper respiratory tract (at low exposure levels) which can be helpful for people with asthma.

Cineol research has revealed the molecule to be effective against certain strains of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus, showing its potency as an antibacterial.

In a rare test of actual vanilla oil, researchers evaluated the efficacy of vanilla oil for inhibiting certain bacteria. The testing also evaluated ylang ylang and patchouli oils. For the bacteria in question – a strain of Staph. – vanilla was able to inhibit its development. (source)

Caryophuyllene has anti-bacterial activity against:

  • Aerococcus viridans R
  • Bacillus cereus R R
  • Enterococcus faecalis R
  • Escherichia coli R R
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum R
  • Haemophilus haemoglobinophilus R
  • Lactobacillus casei R
  • Lactococcus lactis R
  • Mycobacterium bovis R
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis R
  • Proteus vulgaris R
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa R R
  • Salmonella typhimurium R
  • Staphylococcus aureus R R
  • Streptococcus mitis R
  • Streptococcus mutans R
  • Streptococcus sobrinus R
  • Streptococcus sanguinis R
  • Yersinia enterocolitica R
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus R

Caryophuyllene has anti-fungal activity against:

  • Acrophialophora fusispora R
  • Aspergillus flavus R
  • Aspergillus fumigates R
  • Aspergillus niger R
  • Aspergillus parasiticum R
  • Aspergillus tubingensis R
  • Candida parapsilosis R
  • Fusarium solani R
  • Penicillium madriti R
  • Penicillium purpurogenum R
  • Penicillium viridicatum R

Caryophuyllene has anti-parasitic activity against:

  • Leishmania amazonensis R
  • Termites R

Caryophuyllene may also help prevent tick bites (from malaria) and mosquito bites (from the virus Aedes aegypti), reducing the chances of developing Yellow Fever, Dengue Fever and Chikungunya. R R

 

May Improve Wound Healing and Skin Repair

Due to its anti-inflammatory effects, limonene applied to the skin of mice reduced damage, inflammation, and rashes [soure].

Limonene also increased the production of new cells and blood vessels and improved skin healing after an injury in mice [source].

The blood vessels of diabetics tend to be narrower and harder with poorer circulation than those of non-diabetics, which prolongs wound healing time and inflammation. Limonene applied to the skin of diabetic mice reduced inflammation and wound size and formed new skin, speeding up wound healing [source].

 

Improves Memory

Because of Pinenes antioxidant properties, scientists from the Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine tested pinene’s ability to fight the onset of Alzheimers Disease. For this study, the memory function on mice was tested by measuring their ability to find a platform hidden within a maze. The memory function of the mice that were treated with pinene improved more than the group who was not treated. The scientists concluded that “[The] findings suggest the possible neuroprotective potentials of APN for the management of dementia with learning and memory loss.”

Another study done by the Journal of Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry also found pinene to be effective. For this study, mice were put through a passive avoidance test after they were induced with amnesia. The group that was treated with an essential oil high in pinene ( A. koreana) showed a memory enhancement of 72.7% compared to the control group. The researchers concluded that “[The] results suggest that EO of A. koreana may be a useful therapeutic agent against such amnesia-inducing diseases as Alzheimer and vascular dementia.”

A May 2015 study published in the journal Scientific Reports and entitled “Hippocampal Memory Enhancing Activity of Pine Needle Extract Against Amnesia” concluded that “Pinene could be a potent neuropharmacological drug against amnesia” and other diseases related to memory, retention, and recall.

The terpene cineol may contribute towards improved cognition, possibly easing some symptoms experienced with the onset of Alzheimer’s disease.

The alpha-pinene terpene has been shown to counteract memory impairing effects of THC. Alpha-pinene plays a strong role in inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain, which helps you retain memories more efficiently.

Cineol may also help another element of Alzheimer’s disease. During the condition, beta-amyloid plaque proteins start to accumulate within the brain and block cell-to-cell signalling at synapses. These proteins may also initiate inflammation. Cineol has been reported to decrease the inflammation caused by amyloid beta plaques.

 

Improves Mental States of Being

Vanillin has been studied for its in vitro ability to relieve depression. Tracking markers of depression in mice, researchers were able to determine antidepressant activity with the vanillin compound. (source)

 

Caryophuyllene may reduce depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. (source)It may also reduce anxiety (without affecting motor coordination) and may help with General Anxiety Disorder (GAD).(source)

  • Caryophuyllene can decrease the time it takes to get to sleep and increase sleep time. (source)

Caryophuyllene may help relieve chronic pain and neuropathy. (source)  by working on the opioid system and endocannabinoid system, caryophuyllene can increase natural endorphins and reduce inflammation. (source 1, source 2, source 3)

 

 

Anti-Oxidant

Researchers in a 2007 study published in the “Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry” found that vanilla extract contains 26 to 90 percent of the antioxidants of unprocessed vanilla, depending on the type of antioxidant and the concentration of the extract. They concluded that vanilla showed great potential as a health supplement and as a food preservative.

 

May Protect the Eyes

Oxidative stress is caused by free radicals, which damage cells. Due to its antioxidant properties, limonene protected human eye cells from damage by hydrogen peroxide, which is a natural byproduct of human metabolism [source].

 

Mechanisms of Action

  • Limonene prevents the growth of cancer cells by inhibiting G proteins that are involved in cell signaling pathways that induce cell growth, such as p21ras. Limonene inhibits posttranslational addition of hydrophobic groups to the G protein peptide precursor, which is necessary for the proteins to mature and function properly [source].
  • Limonene suppresses the expression of genes that produce MMPs, proteins that break down the extracellular matrix. Limonene also increased antioxidant, inducible iNOS, COX‑2, and ERK expression levels in rats, contributing to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects [3].
  • Limonene increases the ability of docetaxel to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. More reactive oxygen species are produced in the cancer cells, while the amount of glutathione, an antioxidant that inhibits tumor growth, is significantly reduced. The activity of caspase, an enzyme involved in triggering apoptosis, is also increased [source].
  • Limonene reduces TNF-α and inhibits TNF-α-induced NF-κB translocation, reducing inflammation [source a, source b].
  • Limonene and the product of its breakdown, perillyl alcohol (POH), can both help prevent the HPA axis from being overstimulated, which reduces stress [source].
  • The essential oil of Citrus aurantium exhibits anti-anxiety activity through interaction with serotonin receptors. Limonene interacts with 5-HT1A receptors to reduce anxiety, but the exact mechanism is still unknown [source].
  • Limonene reduces breast cancer growth by inhibiting the expression of cyclin D1 and IL-6. Cyclin D1 speeds up the progression of a cell through the cell cycle, allowing cancer cells to proliferate faster. Since cyclin D1 is overexpressed in many breast cancers, the ability of limonene to reduce the expression of cyclin D1 suggests that limonene could help slow down breast cancer growth [source].
  • In stomach cancer cells, limonene decreased BCL2 and increased p53, inhibiting the spread of cancer [source].

 


Take advantage of the many benefits received from CBD blended with Peppermint and Vanilla Bean Terpenes!
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FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) DISCLOSURE: These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any disease. Always check with your physician before starting a new dietary supplement program.
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